Spanish Tutorial

 

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1. Some Basic Phrases

 

¡Buenos días! 
buayn-ohs dee-ahs 
Hello! / Good morning!

¡Buenas tardes! 
buayn-ahs tard-ays 
Good afternoon!

 

 

¡Buenas noches! 
buayn-ahs nohch-ays 
Good evening / Good night

¡Hola! 
oh-lah 
Hi!

 

 

¿Cómo se llama usted? 
coh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted 
What is your name? (formal)

¿Cómo te llamas? 
coh-moh tay yah-mahs 
What is your name? (informal)

 

 

Me llamo... 
may yah-moh 
I am called...

Mi nombre es... 
mee nohm-bray ays 
My name is...

 

 

¿Cómo está usted? 
coh-moh ay-stah oo-sted 
How are you? (formal)

¿Cómo estás? 
coh-moh ay-stahs 
How are you? (informal)

 

 

¿Qué tal? 
kay tahl 
What's up?

Yo estoy... 
yoh ay-stoy 
I am... (when talking about your mood)

 

 

Bien / Muy bien 
bee-ayn / moy bee-ayn 
Good / Very good

Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos 
mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs 
Bad / Very bad / OK

 

 

Adiós. 
ah-dee-ohs 
Good bye.

Chao. 
chow 
Bye.

 

 

Hasta la vista. 
ah-stah lah vee-stah 
Until we meet again.

Hasta luego. 
ah-stah loo-ay-go 
See you later.

 

 

Hasta mañana. 
ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah 
See you tomorrow.

Señor / Señora / Señorita 
sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah 
Mister / Mrs. / Miss

 

 

Mucho gusto.
moo-choh goo-stoh
Nice to meet you.

Encantado/a.
ain-cahn-tah-doh/dah
Delighted to meet you.

 

 

Igualmente.
ee-guahl-main-tay
Same here.

Yo también.
yoh tahm-bee-ain
Me too.

 

 

¿De dónde es usted? 
day dohn-day ays oo-sted 
Where are you from? (formal)

¿De dónde eres? 
day dohn-day air-ays 
Where are you from? (informal)

 

 

Yo soy de... 
yoh soy day 
I'm from...

Yo soy de los Estados Unidos. 
yoh soy day lohs ay-stah-dohs oo-nee-dohs 
I'm from the United States.

 

 

¿Cuántos años tiene usted? 
quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ay oo-sted 
How old are you? (formal)

¿Cuántos años tienes? 
quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays 
How old are you? (informal)

 

 

Yo tengo _____ años. 
yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs 
I am _____ years old.

Gracias. 
grah-see-ahs 
Thank you.

 

 

Por favor. 
por fah-bor 
Please.

¿Y usted? 
ee oo-sted 
And you? (used when asking the same question) (formal)

 

 

¿Y tú? 
ee too 
And you? (informal)

Te amo. 
tay ah-moh 
I love you.


Note: For Encantado/a, you would use the masculine ending, o, if you're a man. You would use the feminine ending, a, if you're a woman. So, if you're a man, you would say Encantado, and if you're a woman, you would say Encantada. Most adjectives work this way. Also, accents (´ ) are very important in the Spanish language. You CANNOT leave out the accents or it'll change the meaning of a word. The syllable with the accent is the emphasized syllable in a word.

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2. Pronunciation

Spanish Letter

English Sound

a

ah

e

ay

i

ee

o

oh

u

oo

ll

y

v

b at beginning of word, real soft b between 2 vowels

ñ

ny (as in canyon)

r

almost like a d when in between 2 vowels

rr

r w/ a roll of the tongue

d

almost like a th when in between 2 vowels

j

hard h

g

g, sometimes a h

qu

k

ai / all / ay

eye

z

s

z, ce, ci

th (in most parts of Spain)


    Note: Any time I put a double r (rr) in the pronunciation of a word, you need to roll your tongue when you say the r's.

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3. Alphabet

a

ah

j

hoh-tah

r

air-ay

b

bay

k

kah

rr

airr-ay

c

say

l

ay-lay

s

ay-say

ch

chay

ll

ay-yay

t

tay

d

day

m

ay-may

u

oo

e

ay

n

ay-nay

v

oo-bay

f

ay-fay

ñ

ayn-yay

w

doh-blay-bay

g

hey

o

oh

x

ah-kees

h

ah-chay

p

pay

y

ee-gree-ay-gah

i

ee

q

koo

z

say-tah

 

Note: The Spanish language academy no longer considers the ch, ll or rr to be separate letters of the alphabet.

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4.  Definite and Indefinite Articles and Demonstratives

 

Masc. Singular

Fem. Singular

 

 

Masc. Plural

Fem. Plural

the

el  (ail)

la  (lah)

 

the

los  (lohs)

las  (lahs)

a, an

un  (oon)

una  (oon-ah)

 

some

unos  (oon-ohs)

unas  (oon-ahs)

this

este

esta

 

these

estos

estas

that

ese

esa

 

those

esos

esas

that

aquel

aquella

 

those

aquellos

aquellas

Note:  El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable.  Use the ese forms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing.  Use the aquel forms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing.  Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that.  They can be used in general and abstract ways.

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5. Subject Pronouns

yo

yoh

I

nosotros(as)

noh-soh-trohs

we

too

you (informal)

vosotros(as)

boh-soh-trohs

you all

él / ella /
usted

ail / ay-yah /
oo-sted

he / she /
you (formal)

ellos / ellas /
ustedes

ay-yohs / ay-yahs /
oo-sted-ays

they / they /
you (plural)

Note: Vosotros is used only in Spain when speaking to more than one person with whom you know well. Nosotras and vosotras refer to a group of all females, as well as ellas. Ustedes is almost always used for saying "you all" in all Spanish speaking countries. Usted can be abreviated to Ud. Ustedes can also be abbreviated to Uds. Please note that the subject pronouns are rarely used before verbs.

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6. To Be and to Have

ser - to be

 

estar - to be

 

tener - to have

soy

somos

 

estoy

estamos

 

tengo

tenemos

eres

sois

 

estás

estáis

 

tienes

tenéis

es

son

 

está

están

 

tiene

tienen

Note:  Ser is used to identify or describe.  It tells what something is, its basic characteristics, or its origin.  Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels.

Uses of Ser

Identify person/object
Inherent characteristics
or qualities
Nationality/Occupation
Telling time
Express ownership
Impersonal expressions
Passive voice

El edificio es un templo.
La casa es grande.
Carlos es pobre.
Es carpintero.
Son las tres.
Los libros son de Juan.
Es necesario.
El telefono fue inventado por Bell.

The building is a temple.
The house is large.
Charles is poor.
He is a carpenter.
It's
three o'clock.
The books are John's.
It is necessary.
The telephone was invented by
Bell.

Uses of Estar

Location/position
Temporary condition/state
State of health
Form progressive tense

El libro está en la mesa.
La ventana está abierta.
Juan está enfermo.
Miguel está estudiando.

The book is on the table.
The window is open.
John is sick.
Michael is studying.

Common Expressions with "to be"
to be afraid - tener miedo
to be against - estar en contra
to be at fault - tener la culpa
to be careful - tener cuidado
to be cold - tener frío
to be curious - ser curioso (a)
to be happy - estar contento (a)
to be hot - tener calor
to be hungry - tener hambre
to be in a hurry - tener prisa, estar de prisa
to be jealous - tener celos
to be lucky - tener suerte
to be patient - tener paciencia
to be successful - tener éxito
to be thirsty - tener sed
to be tired - estar cansado (a)

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7. Question Words

what

qué

 

which

cuál(es)

who

quién(es)

 

how much

cuánto (-a)

how

cómo

 

how many

cuántos (-as)

when

cuándo

 

whom

a quién(es)

where

dónde

 

whose

de quién(es)

why

por qué

 

 

 

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8. Numbers / Ordinals

0

cero

cay-roh

 

 

 

 

1

uno

oo-noh

 

 

first

primero

2

dos

dohs

 

 

second

segundo

3

tres

trays

 

 

third

tercero

4

cuatro

kuah-troh

 

 

fourth

cuarto

5

cinco

seen-koh

 

 

fifth

quinto

6

seis

says

 

 

sixth

sexto

7

siete

see-ay-tay

 

 

seventh

séptimo

8

ocho

oh-choh

 

 

eighth

octavo

9

nueve

new-ay-vay

 

 

ninth

noveno

10

diez

dee-ays

 

 

tenth

décimo

11

once

ohn-say

 

 

eleventh

undécimo

12

doce

doh-say

 

 

twelfth

duodécimo

13

trece

tray-say

 

 

thirteenth

décimo tercero

14

catorce

kah-tor-say

 

 

fourteenth

décimo cuarto

15

quince

keen-say

 

 

fifteenth

décimo quinto

16

diez y seis

dee-ays ee says

 

 

sixteenth

décimo sexto

17

diez y siete

dee-ays ee see-ay-tay

 

 

seventeenth

décimo séptimo

18

diez y ocho

dee-ays ee oh-choh

 

 

eighteenth

décimo octavo

19

diez y nueve

dee-ays ee new-ay-vay

 

 

nineteenth

décimo noveno

20

veinte

bayn-tay

 

 

twentieth

vigésimo

21

veinte y uno

bayn-tay ee oo-noh

 

 

twenty-first

vigésimo primero

22

veinte y dos

bayn-tay ee dohs

 

 

twenty-second

vigésimo segundo

30

treinta

trayn-tah

 

 

thirtieth

trigésimo

40

cuarenta

kuar-ain-tah

 

 

fortieth

cuadragésimo

50

cincuenta

seen-kuain-tah

 

 

fiftieth

quincuagésimo

60

sesenta

say-sain-tah

 

 

sixtieth

sexagésimo

70

setenta

say-tain-tah

 

 

seventieth

septuagésimo

80

ochenta

oh-chain-tah

 

 

eightieth

octogésimo

90

noventa

noh-bain-tah

 

 

ninetieth

nonagésimo

100

cien(to)

see-ain-(toh)

 

 

hundredth

centésimo

1000

mil

meel

 

 

thousandth

milésimo

Note: If you are just saying 100, you use just cien. If it's over 100, you use ciento. So 101 is ciento uno. And 156 would be ciento cincuenta y seis. Also you can also use dieciséis, diecisiete, dieciocho, and diecinueve for 16, 17, 18, and 19, respectively. They are pronounced the same but are combined into one word.

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9. Days of the Week

lunes

loo-nays

Monday

martes

mar-tays

Tuesday

miércoles

mee-air-coh-lays

Wednesday

jueves

hway-bays

Thursday

viernes

bee-air-nays

Friday

sábado

sah-bah-doh

Saturday

domingo

doh-ming-oh

Sunday

el día

ail dee-ah

the day

la semana

lah say-mahn-ah

the week

el fin de semana

ail feen day say-mahn-ah

the weekend

hoy

oy

today

mañana

mahn-yahn-ah

tomorrow

mi cumpleaños

mee coom-play-ahn-yohs

my birthday

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10. Months of the Year

enero 

ay-nair-oh   

January

febrero 

fay-bray-roh 

February

marzo 

mar-soh 

March

abril

ah-breel 

April

mayo

mi-oh

May

junio

hoo-nee-oh

June

julio

 hoo-lee-oh

July

agosto

ah-gohs-toh

August

septiembre

sayp-tee-aim-bray

September

octubre

ohk-too-bray

October

noviembre

noh-bee-aim-bray

November

diciembre

dee-see-aim-bray

December

el mes

ail mais

the month

el primero de [month]

ail pree-mair-oh day _____

the first of [a month]

el año

 ail ahn-yoh

the year

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11. Seasons

spring

la primavera

 

winter

el invierno

summer

el verano

 

autumn

el otoño

Note:  To say in the summer, spring, etc. use en and the season.  En verano means in the summer.

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12. Directions

north

el norte

 

east

el este

south

el sur

 

west

el oeste

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13. Colors

red

rojo

 

violet

violeta

pink

rosado

 

brown

marrón

orange

anaranjado

 

dark brown

café

yellow

amarillo

 

black

negro

green

verde

 

gray

gris

blue

azul

 

white

blanco

light blue

celeste

 

gold

dorado

purple

morado

 

silver

plateado

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14. Time

Qué hora es?

What time is it?

Es la una.

It's one.

Son las dos/tres/cuatro...

It's two/three/four...

Es mediodía.

It's noon.

Es medianoche.

It's midnight.

Son las cinco y cinco.

It's 5:05

Son las ocho y cuarto.

It's 8:15

Son las diez menos cuarto.

It's 9:45

Son cuarto para las diez

It's 9:45 (common in Mexico)

Son las nueve menos diez.

It's 8:50

Son diez para las nueve

It's 8:50 (common in Mexico)

Son las tres y media.

It's 3:30

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15. Weather

Qué tiempo hace?

What's the weather like?

Hace buen tiempo.

The weather's nice.

Hace mal tiempo.

The weather's bad.

Hace frío.

It's cold.

Hace calor.

It's hot.

Hace sol.

It's sunny.

Hace viento.

It's windy.

Llueve.

It's raining.

Nieva.

It's snowing.

Está nublado.

It's cloudy.

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16. Prepositions

a

at

 

al lado de

beside

con

with

 

alrededor de

around

contra

against

 

cerca de

near

de

of, from

 

lejos de

far from

en

in, on

 

delante de

in front of

entre

between, among

 

debajo de

below, under

hacia

towards, about

 

en frente de

opposite

para

for, in order, by

 

detrás de

behind

por

for, through, along, via

 

encima de

above

sobre

on, over

 

hasta

till, until

sin

without

 

desde

from, since

Note:  There are two prepositional contractions with definite articles.  A and el combine to form al, and de and el combine to form del.

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17. Family and Animals

family

la familia

 

grandfather

el abuelo

 

dog

el perro

parents

los padres

 

grandmother

la abuela

 

cat

el gato

husband

el esposo

 

grandson

el nieto

 

bird

el pájaro

wife

la esposa

 

granddaughter

la nieta

 

fish

el pez

father

el padre

 

uncle

el tío

 

horse

el caballo

mother

la madre

 

aunt

la tía

 

goat

la cabra

son

el hijo

 

nephew

el sobrino

 

pig

el cerdo

daughter

la hija

 

niece

la sobrina

 

cow

la vaca

children

los hijos

 

cousin (m)

el primo

 

rabbit

el conejo

sister

la hermana

 

cousin (f)

la prima

 

turtle

la tortuga

brother

el hermano

 

relatives

los parientes

 

mouse

el ratón

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18. To Know People and Facts

conocer - to know people

 

saber - to know facts

conozco

conocemos

 

sabemos

conoces

conocéis

 

sabes

sabéis

conoce

conocen

 

sabe

saben

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19. Formation of Plural Nouns

If a word ends in an -ción, -tad, -dad, or -tud, it'll be feminine. Also, if you are talking about a female, you will use the feminine articles (la señora). Words ending in an -o are masculine. Days of the week are also masculine. And if you're talking about a male, use the masculine articles. There are some exceptions to these rules and you just have to memorize them. To make words ending in a vowel plural, add an -s (libro = libros). Add an -es to make words ending in a consonant (papel = papeles). If a word ends in a -z, change the z to a c and add -es (cruz = cruces). After making the word plural, you must make the articles plural also. There are very few exceptions to making words plural.

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20. Possessive Adjectives

 

 

 

 

 

Terminal Forms

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

my

 

mi

mis

 

mío (a)

míos (as)

your

 

tu

tus

 

tuyo (a)

tuyos (as)

your/his/her/its

 

su

sus

 

suyo (a)

suyos (as)

our

 

nuestro (a)

nuestros (as)

 

nuestro (a)

nuestros (as)

your

 

vuestro (a)

vuestros (as)

 

vuestro (a)

vuestros (as)

your/their

 

su

sus

 

suyo (a)

suyos (as)

Because su and sus can have so many meanings, the definite article may be used with the definite article may be used instead of su with the following forms:  de Ud., de él, de ella, de Uds., de ellos and de ellas.

los libros de ellos  their books

The terminal forms are placed after the noun, and must be preceded by the definite article, except in direct address.  When used with the indefinite article, it corresponds to the English "of mine, of yours," etc.

el libro mío  my book
Qué haces, hijo mío?  
What are you doing, my son?
un amigo mío  a friend of mine

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21. To Do or Make

hacer - to do or make

hago

hacemos

haces

hacéis

hace

hacen

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22. Work and School

doctor
dentist
lawyer
professor
teacher
engineer
architect
writer
journalist
musician
painter
pharmacist
banker
carpenter
barber
mechanic
salesman
electrician
postman
policeman
soldier
pilot
secretary
typist
nurse

el médico
el dentista
el abogado
el profesor
el maestro
el ingeniero
el arquitecto
el escritor
el periodista
el músico
el pintor
el farmacéutico
el banquero
el carpintero
el barbero
el mecánico
el vendedor
el electricista
el cartero
el agente de policia
el soldado
el piloto
la secretaria
la mecanógrafo
la enfermera

 

history
math
algebra
geometry
science
physics
chemistry
zoology
botany
geography
music
art
drawing
painting
linguistics
languages







 

la historia
las matemáticas
el álgebra
la geometría
la ciencia
la fisica
la química
la zoología
la botánica
la geografía
la música
el arte
el dibujo
la pintura
la lingüística
las lenguas / idiomas







 

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23. Countries and Nationalities

 

Country

Masc. (Fem) Nationality

Germany

Alemania

alemán (alemana)

Argentina

Argentina

argentino(a)

Australia

Australia

australiano(a)

Bolivia

Bolivia

boliviano(a)

Canada

Canadá

canadiense

Columbia

Colombia

colombiano(a)

Costa Rica

Costa Rica

costarricense

Cuba

Cuba

cubano(a)

Chile

Chile

chileno(a)

China

China

chino(a)

Ecuador

Ecuador

ecuatoriano(a)

Egypt

Egipto

egipcio(a)

Spain

España

español(a)

India

India

indio(a)

England

Inglaterra

inglés (inglesa)

Italy

Italia

italiano(a)

Japan

Japón

japonés (japonesa)

Mexico

México

mexicano(a)

Russia

Rusia

ruso(a)

South Africa

Suráfrica

surafricano(a)

United States

los Estados Unidos

(norte)americano(a)

France

Francia

francés (francesa)

Portugal

Portugal

portugués (portuguesa)

Poland

Polonia

polaco(a)

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24. To / In and From

to

a

from

de

in

en

Remember to use the prepositional contractions when a noun with an article follows the preposition.

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25. To Come and to Go

venir - to come

 

ir - to go

vengo

venimos

 

voy

vamos

vienes

venís

 

vas

vais

viene

vienen

 

va

van

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26. Misc. Words

a lot

mucho

 

always

siempre

very much

muchísimo

 

everyday

todos los días

a little

poco

 

now

ahora

very little

muy poco

 

usually

usualmente

sometimes

a veces

 

there

ahí

well

bien

 

over there

allí

after

después

 

too bad

qué malo

poorly

mal

 

 

 

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27. Conjugating Regular Verbs

Verbs in Spanish end in -ar, -er or -ir.  Before a verb is conjugated, it is called the infinitive.  Removing the last two letters gives you the stem of the verb (cantar is to sing, cant- is the stem.)  To conjugate regular verbs in the present tense, add these endings to the stems:

-ar

 

-er

 

-ir

o

amos

 

o

emos

 

o

imos

as

áis

 

es

éis

 

es

ís

a

an

 

e

en

 

e

en

Remember that verbs do not require the subject pronouns, so just canto means I sing.  Here are some more regular verbs:

-ar verbs

 

-er verbs

 

-ir verbs

bailar

to dance

 

aprender

to learn

 

vivir

to live

desear

to want

 

comer

to eat

 

escribir

to write

escuchar

to listen

 

correr

to run

 

compartir

to share

estudiar

to study

 

leer

to read

 

recibir

to receive

hablar

to speak

 

vender

to sell

 

 

 

practicar

to practice

 

beber

to drink

 

 

 

tomar

to take

 

comprender

to understand

 

 

 

viajar

to travel

 

 

 

 

 

 


To make sentences negative, simply put no in front of the verb.

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28. Reflexive Verbs

The subject and the object are the same with reflexive verbs - the subject acts upon itself.  A reflexive verb in Spanish will be marked with se attached to the end of the infinitive.  These verbs are conjugated like regular verbs, except the reflexive pronoun agrees with case and gender and precedes the verb when not used in the infinitive form.  Reciprocal verbs are the same as reflexive except the action passes from one person to another.  It can only be used in the first and third person plural forms.  Reflexive verbs sometimes use the "-self" forms in English, while the reciprocal verbs use "each other."

Reflexive Pronouns

me
te
se

nos
os
se

Some common reflexive verbs:

acostarse - to go to bed
bañarse - to bathe oneself
casarse - to get married
despertarse - to wake up
irse - to go away
levantarse - to rise
sentarse - to sit down
vestirse - to dress oneself
atreverse - to dare
quejarse - to complain

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29. Irregularities in Regular Verbs

Some verbs have vowel changes in the present tense for all forms except first and second person plural.  After dropping the endings (-ar, -er, or -ir), the e of the last syllable changes to ie, and o in the last syllable changes to ue.  Some -ir verbs change the e to i.

e to ie

o to ue

e to i

pensar - to think
querer - to want, like, love
cerrar - to close
comenzar - to begin
despertar - to awaken
empezar - to begin
entender - to understand
perder - to lose
preferir - to prefer
sentar - to seat
sentir - to regret, feel

contar - to count
poder - to be able
costar - to cost
dormir - to sleep
encontrar - to find, meet
jugar - to play
morir - to die
mostrar - to show
volar - to fly
volver - to return

pedir - to ask (for)
repetir - to repeat
seguir - to follow
servir - to serve
vestir - to dress




 

 

pensar

 

contar

 

pedir

pienso
piensas
piensa

pensamos
pensáis
piensan

 

cuento
cuentas
cuenta

contamos
contáis
cuentan

 

pido
pides
pide

pedimos
pédis
piden

               

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30. Impersonal "a"

When the object of a verb (except tener) is a definite person, it is preceded by a.  It isn't used if a number precedes the object though.  The pronouns alguien (somebody), alguno (someone), nadie (nobody), and ninguno (no one) require a as well, when used as the direct object.  It is also used before geographical names that are not already preceded by an article.

Veo a Juan.  I see John.
Veo a alguien.  I see somebody.
Describe a
Chile.  Describe Chile.

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31. Preterit Tense

The preterit tense expresses an action in the past.  It is used to describe events that are finished or complete.  It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem.

-ar verbs

 

-er and -ir verbs


-aste

-amos
-asteis
-aron

 


-iste
-ió

-imos
-iste
-eron

         

Viví en España dos años.  I lived in Spain for two years.
Ellos hablaron con los niños.  They spoke with the children.
Quién comió la fruta?  Who ate the fruit?

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32. Irregular Preterit Tense

A few verbs are irregular in the preterit tense.  The following are the most common:

dar - to give

 

decir - to say, tell

 

estar - to be

di
diste
dió

dimos
disteis
dieron

 

dije
dijiste
dijo

dijimos
dijisteis
dijeron

 

estuve
estuviste
estuvo

estuvimos
estuvisteis
estuvieron

hacer - to do, make

 

ir - to go / ser- to be

 

poner - to put, place

hice
hiciste
hizo

hicimos
hicisteis
hicieron

 

fui
fuiste
fue

fuimos
fuisteis
fueron

 

puse
pusiste
puso

pusimos
pusisteis
pusieron

tener - to have

 

traer - to bring

 

venir - to come

tuve
tuviste
tuvo

tuvimos
tuvisteis
tuvieron

 

traje
trajiste
trajo

trajimos
trajisteis
trajeron

 

vine
viniste
vino

vinimos
vinisteis
vinieron

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33. Imperfect Tense

The imperfect is another past tense that is used to express an action as going on in the past, as repeated or habitual.  It is also used with mental and physical conditions and for descriptions.  The preterit tense is used much more often than the imperfect tense though, except with these verbs:  querer, creer, pueder, esperar, tener, and saber.  It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem.

-ar verbs

 

-er and -ir verbs

-aba
-abas
-aba

-ábamos
-abais
-aban

 

-ía
-ías
-ía

-íamos
-íais
-ían

         

Yo vivía en España.  I used to live in Spain.
Luisa estaba triste.  Louise was sad.
El vendía radios.  He was selling radios.

Only a few verbs are irregular in the imperfect tense:

ser - to be

 

ir - to go

 

ver - to see

era
eras
era

éramos
erais
eran

 

iba
ibas
iba

íbamos
ibais
iban

 

veía
veías
veía

veíamos
veíais
veían

               

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34. Food and Meals

breakfast
lunch
supper
dinner
meal
food
bread
roll
butter
meat
fish
vegetables
fruit
cheese
crackers
candy
sandwich
ice cream

el desayuno
el almuerzo
la cena
la comida
la comida
el alimento
el pan
el panecillo
la mantequilla
la carne
el pescado
las legumbres
la fruta
el queso
la galleta
los dulces
el sándwich
el helado

 

tablecloth
napkin
fork
knife
spoon
plate, dish
glass
cup
salt
saltshaker
pepper
pepper shaker
sugar
sugar bowl
vinegar
coffeepot
teapot
tray

el mantel
la servilleta
el tenedor
el cuchillo
la cuchara
el plato
el vaso
la taza
la sal
el salero
la pimienta
el pimientero
el azúcar
el azucarero
el vinagre
la cafetera
la tetera
la bandeja

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35. Gustar

Gustar plus a noun means to like something.  Literally, it means to please and takes an indirect object, so the construction of the sentence will be different than that of English.

Me gusta(n)

I like

 

Nos gusta(n)

we like

Te gusta(n)

you like

 

Os gusta(n)

you like

Le gusta(n)

you/he/she likes

 

Les gusta(n)

you/they like

Gusta is used with singular nouns, while gustan is used with plural nouns.  With le and les, you can add a Ud., a él, a ella, a Uds., a ellos and a ellas to make the meaning clear.

Me gustan las flores.  I like the flowers.  (Literally: To me are pleasing the flowers or the flowers are pleasing to me.)
Nos gusta la casa.  We like the house.
No me gusta.  
I don't like it.
Le gusta a Ud.?  Do you like it?
Le gustan a ella.  She likes them.

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36. Fruits, Vegetables and Meats

apple
orange
banana
grapefruit
lemon
lime
peach
apricot
fig
grapes
pear
plum
cherry
pineapple
melon
watermelon
strawberry
raspberry
blackberry

la manzana
la naranja
la banana
la toronja
el limón
la lima
el melocotón
el albaricoque
el higo
unas uvas
la pera
la ciruela
la cereza
la piña
el melón
la sandía
la fresa
la frambuesa
la zarzamora

 

lettuce
cabbage
cauliflower
green peas
asparagus
green been
spinach
tomato
carrot
turnip
beet
celery
onion
cucumber
parsley
squash
artichoke
eggplant
rhubarb

la lechuga
la col
la coliflor
los guisantes
los espárragos
la habichuela
la espinaca
el tomate
la zanahoria
el nabo
la remolacha
el apio
la cebolla
el pepino
el perejil
la calabaza
la alcachofa
la berenjena
el ruibarbo

 

broccoli
corn on the cob
radish
pepper
garlic
potato
sweet potato
beans
beef
lamb
pork
sausage
ham
bacon
goose
duck
chicken
turkey
lobster

el brócoli
el elote / la mazorca
el rábano
el pimiento
el ajo
la patata
la batata
los frijoles / las judías
la carne de vaca
el cordero
el cerdo
la salchicha
el jamón
el tocino
el ganso
el pato
el pollo
el pavo
la langosta

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37. To Take or Drink

tomar - to take or drink

tomo
tomas
toma

tomamos
tomáis
toman


When tomar means to drink, it usually refers to alcohol. In
Mexico, tomar can be intransitive, as beber is almost never used. In Spain, tomar is always transitive, such as tomar una copa- to have a drink and tomar un café - to have a coffee.

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38. Commands

To form familiar commands, regular -ar verbs end in -a, and -er and -ir verbs end in -e for the tú form.  Change the final -r to -d for the vosotros form.  Negative familiar commands use the subjunctive forms, so -ar verbs end in -es and -éis, while -er and -ir verbs end in -as and -áis for the tú and vosotros forms.

 

Affirmative

 

Negative

 

-ar

-er or -ir

 

-ar

-er or -ir

-a

-e

 

-es

-as

vosotros

-ad

-ed

 

-éis

-áis

Habla!  = Speak!  (tú form)
Comed! = Eat!  (vosotros form)
No comáis! = Don't eat!  (negative vosotros form)

Irregular Familiar Commands

 

vosotros

decir
hacer
ir
irse
poner
salir
ser
tener
venir

di
haz
ve
vete
pon
sal

ten
ven

decid
haced
id
idos
poned
salid
sed
tened
venid

To form formal commands of verbs, drop the -o ending of the yo form, and add the opposite vowel ending.  This means -ar verbs will add -e for the Usted form and -en for the Ustedes form; while -er and -ir verbs will add -a for Usted and -an for Ustedes.  To make a command negative, just add no before it.

 

-ar

-er or -ir

Usted

-e

-a

Ustedes

-en

-an

Beba! = Drink!  (Usted form)
Coman! = Eat (Ustedes form)
No beban! = Don't drink! (negative Ustedes form)

Ir and ser have irregular forms as formal commands:  vaya and vayan for ir and sea and sean for ser.

Verbs that end in -car, -gar and -zar have the following changes in commands as well:  c becomes qu, g becomes gu, and z becomes c.

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39. More Negatives

To make sentences negative, you place no before the verb.  Other negatives may precede or follow the verb, but if they follow, they must follow a negative verb (a double negative).  The word order is no + verb + negative.

nada
nadie
ninguno (a)
tampoco
ni
ni...ni
ni siquiera
nunca, jamás

nothing, (not) anything
nobody, (not) anybody
no, none
neither, either
nor
neither... nor
not even
never, ever

Nunca means ever when it follows a comparative; jamás means ever when it follows an affirmative verb.

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40. Holiday Phrases

Feliz Navidad

Merry Christmas

Feliz Año Nuevo

Happy New Year

Feliz Cumpleaños

Happy Birthday

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This site was last updated 01/01/18

 

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